Gooseberries (Grossularia) refers to a species of plants from the family Gooseberries (Grossulariacea). The species is a separate branch of the genus Currant. Earlier, the gooseberry subgenus was considered as a separate species belonging to the genus Grossularia Mill.
Groups and their features
By properties and origin, all known gooseberry varieties are divided into several groups.
West European Group
Such species come from the wild species of European gooseberry, or Crossularia reclinata (Z) -Mill. Distinctive features are the average strength of the growth of the bush, large-fruited and high tastes of ripe berries. The main disadvantage can be considered susceptibility to lesions by a fungal disease such as powdery mildew, or sferotek, which is caused by Sphaerotheca moruvae. The Western European group is known for green bottle gooseberries, as well as varieties "Industry" and "Warsaw".
Representatives of this group come from the American species Crossularia hirtella Mich Spach and European varieties. As a result of crossing, it was possible to obtain varieties whose essential differences are the strong growth of plants, as well as the presence of thin arcuate and slightly prickly shoots. The berries are not large enough and have a very mediocre taste. Gooseberries are characterized by high resistance to powdery mildew. The most famous representatives of this group are Houghton, Purman, Curry and Grape.
This category is divided into old and new types. New varieties of the Russian group are characterized by high spherical resistance, excellent yield and excellent taste data. As a result of many years of research, it was possible to isolate the most productive from old and new varieties, which are very promising for cultivation in our country. The most popular varieties are "Jubilee", "Malachite" and "Change". In recent years, breeders have bred and zoned varieties that are ideal for growing in Russia.
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Gooseberry: variety selection
Detailed Description of Varieties
Varieties with spikes
The variety has large berries that are yellow in color. It is characterized by a very rich and sweet taste. Berries are suitable for universal use. They are not only consumed fresh, but also used as raw materials for cooking jam or fortified compotes.
Obtained as a result of painstaking selection. A characteristic feature is the average frost resistance, which allows it to be cultivated in the southern regions of our country. Standard indicators of the height of the bushes reach one and a half meters, so the cultivation is carried out in a trellis way. The fruits are characterized by high transportability, which made the variety popular not only among private gardeners and gardeners, but also in farms.
The optimal cultivar in regions with harsh winters. It has a spreading crown, sweet and sour yellow berries, medium in size. The particular popularity of the variety is due to its early ripening and excellent taste. Certain disadvantages of the variety can be considered low indicators of fruit transportability, which makes it impossible to grow on an industrial scale.
It is characterized by high winter hardiness and productivity. The plant is not afraid of spring frosts, and is also quite resistant to powdery mildew. Taste is high. Ripe fruits have a soft and delicate sour-sweet taste. Berries have a rounded shape, dark red color, delicate skin. Average yields reach 5 kilograms of fruit per adult plant.
Very popular and promising variety, characterized by late ripening. Bred in America and has long taken root in our country. Ripe berries have a brownish-pink coloration of the skin and have a very rich, sweet-sour taste. Fruits can be consumed fresh, as well as raw materials for harvesting and preservation.
Bred for cultivation in the suburbs. It is characterized by early entry into fruiting, as well as high yield and resistance of ripe fruits to cracking, which makes them suitable for processing into sauces and wine, freezing and canning. Rounded or pear-shaped berries have a dark red color and a sweet and sour, very pleasant, refreshing taste. A significant advantage of the variety is the good rooting of cuttings and layering. The disadvantages include the small size of the berry and a palpable sour taste.
The name is fully consistent with the skin color of ripe berries. The variety is characterized by mid-season, resistance of fruits to cracking. The average height of the bushes can exceed one and a half meters. The variety was the result of crossing gooseberry varieties "Krasilny" and "Anibut." The resulting plant has the best parental qualities, is characterized by sphere resistance and suitability for any kind of processing.
It is characterized by medium ripening, as well as rather large berries, which in ripe form acquire a very pleasant pink color and a slight waxy coating. The variety belongs to the category of universal use. Fruits have a delicate dessert flavor, different juiciness of ripe pulp. The disadvantage is low frost resistance.
A feature of the variety is the presence on the plant of weak, not lignified spikes, which allow the collection of ripe berries to be carried out unhindered. In addition, the variety is characterized by abundant fruiting. On the bush, beautiful dark red berries ripen that do not crumble after full ripening. The disadvantages include an insignificant mass of fruits and an average level of winter hardiness of the plant. The variety belongs to the category of universal purpose and is widely distributed in our country.
Varieties without thorns
It is characterized by large emerald-colored berries with a very thin skin, delicate pulp and slight sourness in taste. Quite often ripe fruits are used for preservation and preparation of workpieces. The variety is resistant to frost, disease and pests.
It is characterized by large berries with a characteristic matte, very pronounced, purple color. The taste has subtle notes of black currant. A distinctive feature of the plant is resistance to powdery mildew. Berries are ideal for making jam and making jelly.
"Lights of Krasnodar"
It has large fruits with a dark red color and a very sweet taste. It is perfectly adapted to cultivation in almost any climatic zone and easily tolerates dry summers, as well as significant frosts.
Characteristic is a peculiar pear-shaped form of ripe berries. The fruits are dark in color with a pleasant, delicate and sweet taste.
Ripe berries have an unusual cherry color, but a rather mediocre taste. A feature of the variety is the need for frequent formation of bushes, as well as the inability of plants to change climate conditions during cultivation.
It has large berries of light green color. Ripe fruits have a sweet taste with a slight acidity. The bushes are quite compact and resistant to damage by most diseases and pests.
It forms large berries with a dark red color and a very sweet, pleasant taste. The variety belongs to the category of medium early ripening and has sufficient resistance to a large number of diseases.
It has large sweet and sour berries of the correct oval shape. Taste is very high. The variety is characterized by an average ripening period, yield and increased resistance to disease.
One of the best in terms of productivity. It has compact, tall bushes with non-branching branches. The black color of the berries gives the plant a decorative effect. The fruits are medium in size with a characteristic pleasant aftertaste. The plant is rarely affected by diseases and easily tolerates frosts. The average yield of one adult bush can reach 12 kilograms of berries.
Novelty bred by our country’s breeders. Variety of medium ripening with vigorous and poorly decomposed shrubs. Branches go directly from the root system and have an average thickness. The berries are quite large and have a light red color. The fruit is characterized by a droplet shape and a sweet, with a slight sourness, taste. The variety is resistant to powdery mildew and is very winter-hardy.
The best varieties for central Russia
Despite the emergence in recent years of promising and modern varieties of gooseberry without thorns, most summer residents in the middle lane of our country still prefer traditional, time-tested, prickly, productive shrubs. Of course, picking berries from such plants is characterized by certain inconveniences, however, these varieties loved by gardeners take root well and easily tolerate the surprises of the weather. The most popular are:
- "Russian yellow";
In the suburbs it is recommended to grow varieties "Yubileiny", "Rodnik", "Neslukhovsky", "Hinomaki" and "Krasnoslavyansky".
The best varieties for Siberia
Features of climatic and weather conditions that characterize the territory of Siberia suggest the cultivation of plants resistant to frost and prolonged low temperatures. Preference should be given to such varieties with slightly prickly shoots, such as:
- "Besshipny Chelyabinsk";
- "Green rain";
- "Black drop";
- "Red East";
All these varieties are characterized by winter hardiness, and are also resistant to disease damage and form higher than average yields. It should be remembered that in Siberia gooseberry bushes successfully winter only under a layer of snow.
How to plant gooseberries
Observance of the rules of gooseberry cultivation and the right choice of variety will allow you to get a stable high yield of healthy berries in almost any region of Russia.